灌溉排水学报

2019, v.38(S1) 22-27

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滴灌减量施肥对香蕉产量、养分吸收利用及效益的影响
Effects of Reducing Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer on Yield,Nutrient Absorption and Economic Benefit of Banana under Drip Irrigation

臧小平;井涛;周登博;王尉;丁哲利;王必尊;谢江辉;马蔚红;
ZANG Xiaoping;JING Tao;ZHOU Dengbo;WANG Wei;DING Zheli;WANG Bizun;XIE Jianghui;MA Weihong;HaiKou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences;Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences;

摘要(Abstract):

【目的】针对当前香蕉施肥过量问题,分析氮磷钾滴灌减量施肥对香蕉果实产量、养分吸收利用及经济效益的影响。【方法】采用田间试验方法,以巴西蕉为试验材料,设置氮磷钾常规施肥(纯N量1 112 kg/hm~2, P_2O_5量690kg/hm~2,K_2O量2 135 kg/hm~2)和滴灌减量施肥(纯N量588 kg/hm~2, P_2O_5量432 kg/hm~2, K_2O量742 kg/hm~2)2个处理。【结果】滴灌施肥条件下,香蕉产量为56 503 kg/hm~2,较常规施肥(CK)增产13.0%。氮、磷、钾肥利用率较CK分别提高17.30%、16.19%、20.34%;氮、磷、钾肥吸收效率分别提高86.36%、50.00%、172.00%;氮、磷、钾肥偏生产力分别提高113.75%、80.52%、225.29%。纯收益较CK增加20 930元/hm~2,产出投入比由1.26:1上升到1.45:1。【结论】与当前常规的氮磷钾施肥量比较,滴灌减量施肥(纯N减量47.1%, P_2O_5减量37.4%,K_2O减量65.3%)不会导致香蕉减产。
【Objective】In view of excess fertilization in banana in Hainan province, reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under drip irrigation was studied for higher yield and better economic benefit.【Method】The field plot experiment was conducted with Brazil banana trees in Lingao county. Based on conventional fertilizertion, the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in CK was set up: N 1 112 kg/hm~2, P_2O_5690 kg/hm~2,K_2O 2 135 kg/hm~2. The amount of N, P_2O_5 and K_2O in another treatment(RF) was reduced by 47.1%, 37.4% and65.3% under drip irrigation respectively.【Result】The yield in the RF treatment was 56 503 kg/hm~2, which increased by 13.0% than that of CK. Compered to CK, the nutrient ultilization efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer in RF treatment increased by 17.30%, 16.19% and 20.34%, the nutrient uptake efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer in RF treatment increased by 86.36%, 50.00% and 172.00%, the partial factor productivity of N, P, K fertilizer in RF treatment increased by 113.75%, 80.52% and 225.29%, respectively. Reducing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer under drip irrigation increased the net income by 20 930 yuan/hm~2, and promoted intput-output ratio from 1.26:1 to 1.45:1.【Conclusion】Compared the current nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer input levels, reducing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer inputs to some extent does not decline but raises the fruit yield and increases the net income remarkably. For the experimental condition, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under drip fertgation could be reduced by 47.1%, 37.4% and 65.3% respectively from current quantities,which are N 588 kg/hm~2, P_2O_5432 kg/hm~2, K_2O 742 kg/hm~2 per year as appropriate option.

关键词(KeyWords): 香蕉;滴灌施肥;产量;养分吸收利用效率
banana;drip fertigation;yield;nutrient uptake and use efficiency

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0202105);; 国家现代农业产业技术体系专项(CARS-32)

作者(Author): 臧小平;井涛;周登博;王尉;丁哲利;王必尊;谢江辉;马蔚红;
ZANG Xiaoping;JING Tao;ZHOU Dengbo;WANG Wei;DING Zheli;WANG Bizun;XIE Jianghui;MA Weihong;HaiKou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences;Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences;

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